The Acronym Expander | Free On-Line
Dictionary of Computing
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- ARPA (DARPA)
- The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central
research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD).
It manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development
projects for DoD, and pursues research and technology where risk and payoff
are both very high and where success may provide dramatic advances for
traditional military roles and missions and dual-use application.
- Broad System of Ordering (BSO)
- A general subject classification scheme, commissioned by UNESCO, intended
to be a switching language among existing classification schemes and thesauri
to make them mutually compatible on a general level. It provides about
- Collection Interface Agent
- A program which interacts with the Collection Registry. For searchable
collections (Z39.50, FTL, ...) it takes care of talking to the remote collection,
submitting searches, fetching and processing results. It is also referred
to as a CIA or a collection agent.
- Collection Registry
- The database in which descriptions of collections are stored.
- Concept Space
- Graph of terms occurring within objects linked to each other by the
frequency with which they occur together.
- Corporation for National
Research Initiatives (CNRI)
- A non-profit organization dedicated to formulating, planning, and carrying
out national-level research initiatives on the use of network-based information
technology. CNRI is concentrating on research and development for the National
Information Infrastructure, working collaboratively with industry, academia,
- Derived Data
- Data that was originally supplied in one form, but was converted to
another form using some automated process.
- Document Image Decoding, a methodology for document recognition founded
on statistical communication theory.
- Digital Libraries
- Digital libraries basically store materials in electronic format and
manipulate large collections of those materials effectively.
- The Federation is comprised of leaders of fifteen of the nation's largest
research libraries and archives and the Commission on Preservation and
Access (CPA). A primary
goal of the Federation is the implementation of a distributed, open digital
library accessible across the global Internet. The library will consist
of collections expanding over time in number and scope to be created from
the conversion of digital form of documents contained in founding member
and other libraries and archives, and from the incorporation of holdings
already in electronic form.
- Digital Libraries Initiative. Six research projects developing new
technologies for digital libraries -- storehouses of information available
through the Internet, -funded through a joint initiative of the National
Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The projects' focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store,
and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching,
retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in user-friendly
- Environmental Systems Research Institute
- European Digital Library
- The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics aims
to foster collaborative work within the European research community and
to increase cooperation with European industry. Leading research establishments
from fourteen European countries are members of ERCIM.
- Federated Repositories
- Organized collections (heterogeneous databases) located in different
places but searched transparently as one database via merging and mapping
- Hypertext Markup Language. An SGML-based text markup
language used on the WWW (World Wide Web).
- Internet Engineering Task Force - an all volunteer organization responsible
for publishing RFCs and Internet Standards.
- International Intellectual Property Alliance.
- Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications
- Information Infrastructure Task Force.
- Information Visualization
- A method of presenting data or information in non-traditional, interactive
graphical forms. By using 2-D or 3-D color graphics and animation, these
visualizations can show the structure of information, allow one to navigate
through it, and modify it with graphical interactions.
- Intellectual Property Usage License
- The authority to employ a particular intellectual work in a designated
way, possibly associated with other specifications of scope.
- Intellectual Work
- The object requiring an intellectual property usage license (i.e.,
an authored document). This object has an associated individual or agent
with authority to grant such licenses.
- The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines from multiple
vendors to communicate.
- The Interspace is a vision of what the Internet
will become, where users cross-correlate information in multiple ways from
multiple sources. It is an applications environment for interconnecting
spaces to manipulate information, much as the Internet is a protocol environment
for interconnecting networks to transmit data. Navigating information paths
and grouping related items is a fundamental operation. So is semantic retrieval
and community classification, with interactive support for vocabulary switching
across domains and subject indexing for amateur classifiers.
- Information Retrieval
- The new international standard for electronic manuscript preparation
and markup. ISO 12083 speeds computerized text from author to publisher
to typesetter without retyping and transforms the document into a searchable
- Java is a simple, object-oriented, distributed, interpreted, robust,
secure, architecture-neutral, portable, high-performance, multithreaded,
dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming language.
- Machine Learning
- The ability of a machine to improve its performance based on previous
- This is an idea out of Xerox PARC
where a region of the display (the "lens"), positioned by the
mouse, is rendered in a special way. Lenses are specialized local views
which might show labels where none were before, or handles on objects,
or highlight certain subsets of items.
- Data about data. Includes information describing aspects of actual
data items, such as name, format, content, and the control of or over data.
- Software that mediates between an applications program and a network.
It manages the interaction between disparate applications across the heterogeneous
computing platforms. The Object Request Broker (ORB), software that manages
communication between objects, is an example of a middleware program.
- Multiple View User Interface
- Multiple views means that phrases can be drag-and-drop across each
individual interface for each information source.
- Multivalent Document (MVD)
- A single document made of multiple layers of difference but intimately
related material. Each layer is of homogeneous content, but is of a relatively
limited scope and functionality. Layers have dynamically loaded program
objects associated with them called behaviors, that manipulate the content,
often communicating with other layers and other behaviors to achieve a
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA's mission is to
advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding of the Earth,
the solar system, and the universe and use the environment of space for
- The NetBill project at CMU's Information Networking Institute is designing
the protocols and software to support network-based payment for goods and
services delivered over the Internet. NetBill acts as a third party to
provide authentication, account management, transaction processing, billing,
and reporting services for network-based clients and users.
- National Information Infrastructure.
- National Science Foundation. An independent agency of the U.S. government
with the mission of promoting science and engineering.
- National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Responsible
for the Information Superhighway.
- Optical Character Recognition
- An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts,
and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and
the relationships that hold among them.
- Software which provides a virtual infinite extent, infinitely zoomable
work surface, being developed under an ARPA grant at the University of
New Mexico. Its multiscale interface, allowing interaction at many scales,
is expected to allow the visualization of large scale information structures,
and the organization of large and complex work activities. It is integrated
with the Tcl/Tk prototyping environment and is being used as the development
platform for the University of Michigan's Advanced User Interface (AUI).
- Indexing software developed by the OpenText Corp. which serves as the
basis for its products used for searching the WWW, intranets, etc.
- Windows on a zooming work surface which can be used to bring distant
regions close, to give simultaneous views at multiple scales, or, when
given special active functionality, to create Magic lenses.
- Query Planning Agent
- A kind of Task Planning Agent. In many contexts, this means task planners
who specialize in query tasks. Some select only from a library of existing
plans for executing queries, others construct new plans.
- The process of adding new descriptions to the registry database.
- Registry Database
- The database in which descriptions of agents (including collections)
are stored. Also called the Conspectus database or the registry.
- An agent which, given a URL, will check the links of a homepage at
a specified interval of time, check a specified homepage for any changes
in the homepage at a specified interval and notify the user of any changes,
and/or search a specified homepage for key phrases, results of which are
emailed to the user.
- This concept is based on the idea that at the beginning of learning,
students need a great deal of support, gradually, this support is taken
away to allow students to try their independence. Providing support takes
place in a number of ways - the way in which the selections are organized
in a theme, the amount of prior knowledge activation that is provided,
the way in which the literature is read by students, and the types of responses
students are encouraged to make.
- Semantic Retrieval
- Searching for words within a concept space (graph of terms occurring
within objects linked to each other by the frequency with which they occur
- Semantic Zooming
- In a multiscale interface like PAD++, normal, geometric zooming simply
changes the size of objects in the view. In semantic zooming, objects change
appearance or shape as they change size. For example, a growing dot will
become a simple box, then a box with a one-word label, then a box with
a longer label, then a rectangle filled with text and pictures. The goal
is to give the most meaningful presentation at each size.
- Standard Generalized Markup Language. SGML is a platform-neutral standard
for creating documents and information archives--it's a series of rules
that everyone can follow in order to make their documents publishable in
different media (print, CD-ROM, the Web) and to make their documents readable
with different kinds of computers. SGML is also a structure for storing
information which eases information-management and manipulation. It supports
very powerful searching and allows large information repositories to be
repurposed, broken down, and rearranged intelligently into individual documents.
For more information, see SGML info.
- A platform on which an assortment of experimental tools and products
may be deployed and allowed to interact in real-time. Successful tools
and products may be identified and developed in an interactive, evolutionary,
- TextTiling is a method for partitioning full-length text documents
into coherent multi-paragraph units.
- A controlled vocabulary with a syndetic structure within a circumscribed
subject field used to organize material or information.
- An interface for document that allows the user to make informed decisions
about which documents to view based on the distribution of search terms
in the document.
- Uniform Resource Characteristic
- Uniform Resource Citation
- A collection of attribute/values about an object. Some of the values
may be URIs. URCs are not formally defined, yet.
- Universal Resource Identifier - an address of some sort. See IETF URI-WG
and the W3.org.
- Uniform Resource Locator. URLs are a particular kind of URI.
- Uniform Resource Name. URNs are another kind of URI. Names are more
persistent than Locations. A location may change, but a name rarely will.
- Vocabulary Switching
- The mapping of vocabulary from one discipline onto the vocabulary of
- The American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service
Definition and Protocol Specification for Open Systems Interconnection.
The National Information Standards Institute (NISO), an American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) accredited standards developer that serves the
library, information, and publishing communities, approved the original
standard in 1988 (referred to as Z39.50-1988 or Version 1). NISO published
a revised version of the standard in 1992 (Z30.50-1992 or Version 2). ANSI/NISO
Z39.50 defines a standard way for two computers to communicate for the
purpose of information retrieval. Z39.50 makes it easier to use large information
databases by standardizing the procedures and features for searching and
retrieving information. Specifically, Z39.50 supports information retrieval
in a distributed, client and server environment where a computer operating
as a client submits a search request (query) to another computer acting
as an information server. Software on the server performs a search on one
or more databases and creates a set of records that meet the criteria of
the search request as a result. The server returns records from the resulting
set to the client for processing. The power of Z39.50 is that it separates
the user interface on the client side from the information servers, search
engines, and databases. Z39.50 provides a consistent view of information
from a wide variety of sources and offers client implementers the capability
to integrate information from a range of databases and servers.
Science | Interspace
| Testbed | User Evaluation
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Digital Libraries Initiative
Comments to: External Relations Coordinator, Tom